Structure of Banking System In India : Banking Brilliance India’s Structural Success 2024

A Simple Guide to understand the Structure of Banking System In India

In the bustling world of finance, banks stand tall as pillars of economic stability and progress. They play a crucial role in the lives of individuals, businesses, and the nation as a whole. But have you ever wondered how Indian banks are organized and how they function? Let’s embark on a journey to unravel the Structure of  Banking System in India in simplest of terms.

Introduction to Banking: 

At its core, banking involves the handling of money – accepting deposits from people who have surplus funds and lending money to those in need. In India, the banking sector comprises various types of banks, each serving specific purposes and catering to diverse needs.

Diagram Banking Structure In India

This Diagram will make you understand the structure of banking system in India.

structure of banking system in india-min
structure of banking system in india-min


Types of Banks

#1.Commercial Banks:

These are the most common banks you’ll come across, like State Bank of India (SBI), HDFC Bank, ICICI Bank, etc. They offer a wide range of services such as savings accounts, loans, and investments to individuals and businesses.

#2.Regional Rural Banks (RRBs):

These banks operate in rural areas and focus on providing banking services to farmers, small traders, and rural artisans.

#3.Cooperative Banks:

Cooperative banks are owned and operated by their members, who are typically individuals belonging to a particular community or profession. They serve the financial needs of their members and are prevalent in urban and rural areas alike.

#4.Development Banks:

These banks are established with the aim of promoting specific sectors of the economy, such as agriculture, industry, and exports. They provide long-term finance for development projects and infrastructure initiatives.

Structure of Banking System In India

The structure of Indian banking can be broadly categorized into two main components:

  1. Regulatory Bodies:

These are institutions responsible for formulating policies, regulations, and guidelines to ensure the smooth functioning and stability of the banking system. Regulatory bodies are :

Reserve Bank of India (RBI):

Often referred to as the central bank of India, the RBI is the apex regulatory authority for the banking sector. It regulates the issuance and supply of the Indian currency, formulates monetary policies, supervises banks, and maintains financial stability. click here for official website of rbi

Government of India:

The government plays a significant role in setting policies related to banking and finance through various ministries such as the Ministry of Finance. It also formulates budgetary policies that impact the banking sector. Official website for more details

  1. Banking Institutions:

These are the entities that directly engage in banking activities and provide financial services to customers. The key banking institutions in India include:

Public Sector Banks (PSBs):

These are banks where the majority stake is held by the government. They play a crucial role in extending banking services to the masses, especially in rural and remote areas.

Private Sector Banks:

These banks are run by private individuals or corporations. They are known for their efficiency, innovation, and Customer-Centric approach.

Foreign Banks:

These are banks that are headquartered in foreign countries but operate branches or subsidiaries in India. They bring in expertise, technology, and global best practices to the Indian banking sector.

Small Finance Banks:

These banks are specifically aimed at providing financial services to small businesses and low-income households. They focus on financial inclusion and serve as a bridge between traditional banks and unbanked sections of society.

Functions of Indian Banks

Regardless of their type, all banks perform certain fundamental functions that form the backbone of the banking system. These functions include:

Accepting Deposits:

Banks accept various types of deposits, such as savings deposits, current deposits, and fixed deposits, from individuals and businesses.

Providing Loans:

Banks provide loans and advances to individuals and businesses for various purposes, such as buying a home, starting a business, or meeting personal expenses.

Facilitating Payments:

Banks facilitate domestic and international payments through services like cheque clearing, electronic fund transfers, and issuing letters of credit.

Credit Creation:

Banks play a pivotal role in creating credit by lending out a portion of the deposits they receive, thus stimulating economic growth and development.


Banks invest in various financial instruments such as government securities, bonds, and equities to earn returns on their idle funds.

Providing Financial Services: Apart from traditional banking services, banks also offer a wide range of financial products and services, including insurance, mutual funds, wealth management, and investment advisory services.

Takeaway :

Understanding the structure of Indian banking is crucial for anyone looking to navigate the financial landscape of the country. By familiarizing ourselves with the regulatory bodies, banking institutions, and functions of banks, we can make informed decisions about managing our finances, availing banking services, and contributing to the economic progress of the nation. In essence, Indian banking is not just about money; it’s about empowerment, inclusivity, and prosperity for all.


Q1. What is the definition of bank in one line?

Ans1: A Bank is a financial institution which accept deposits for the purpose of lending.

Q2. Name of Oldest Government Bank?

Ans2: Allahabad Bank in the year of 1865. Now it has been merged.

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